AFLATOXICOSIS IN POULTRY PDF
February 23, 2021 | by admin
Aflatoxicosis in poultry: A review. Article (PDF Available) · September with Reads. Cite this publication. Ansuman Mohapatra at. Aflatoxins (AF) are a class of mycotoxins, produced by fungal species of the genus Aspergillus (flavus and parasiticus) and Penicillium puberulum, that are often. Abstract. Poultry has commonly been considered highly susceptible to aflatoxins. However, among domestic fowl there is wide variability in specific species sen.
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The Common Clinical Signs and Pathological Lesions of Mycotoxicoses in Poultry –
Finished feed should not be stored for long periods of time as mycotoxin contamination can occur in these products Richard, Fumonisins toxicosis Fumonisin which is most frequently found in the field is fumonisin B1. There are four main aflatoxins of concern: Environmental stresses drought, prolonged rain, etc.
Ducks, geese, and turkeys seem to be more sensitive to mycotoxicoses than chickens and quails. Poultry feed production and cost are major issues faced by poultry industries in many countries of the world. The most consistent findings in chickens suffer from aflatoxicosis was immune suppressive effects, include more susceptible to diseases, decreased responds to vaccination and antibiotic treatment, and decreased resistance to environment stress.
The Common Clinical Signs and Pathological Lesions of Mycotoxicoses in Poultry
Aflatoxins AF are a class of mycotoxinsproduced by fungal species of the genus Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus and Penicillium puberulumthat are often found in the ingredients used to make poultry feed. Cunningham and Bucher, Higher mycotoxin contamination can be found in crops subjected to stress, such as drought, poor fertilization or excess of water.
The above-cited studies provide evidence for a low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition response in aflatoxins in chickens; however, the most relevant evidence for the hormetic response of dietary aflatoxins on body weight in chickens comes from the study of Richardson et al.
The mechanism of action of aflatoxins on the hormetic response in chickens needs to be investigated. Table 3 summarizes the results of several studies conducted with dietary aflatoxins in chickens, which observed a low stimulation at the low-dose level tested.
Aflatoxin is known to have a hepatotoxic effect in chickens Dalvi,Espada et al.
Some fungi may produce aflatoxiicosis as secondary metabolites that further contaminate these grains used for feed ingredients. Afaltoxin B1, which is known to be aflatoxicoss hepatotoxin and ochratoxin A, a nephrotoxin, acted synergistically when fed simultaneously to broiler chicks Huff et al. Zearalenone toxicosis Since zearalenone is known to be primarily an estrogenic mycotoxin, this toxin appears to bind to estrogenic receptors and results in hormonal changes. Josephine Wee, Devin M.
The toxic effects of AFB1 are mainly localized in liver as manifested by hepatic necrosis, bile duct proliferation, icterus and hemorrhage. Masked mycotoxins Masked mycotoxins are mycotoxins that experienced changes in their chemical structures.
In general, the production of these mycotoxins is ubiquitous and more prevalent in warm and moderate climates; however, trichothecenes and zearalenone may equally be produced at lower temperatures.
The process of mycotoxin production by fungi is not well known. Despite the fact that proper conditions for growth of fungi can occur at aflatoxidosis times during crop growth, harvest, and storage, fungal species can be divided into field fungi, which infect crops as parasites, and storage fungi which grow in feedstuffs stored under suboptimal conditions.
Avian species especially chicks, goslings, ducklings and turkey poults are most susceptible to AFB1 toxicity. The common pathological lesions associated with fumonisins were enlargement of proventriculus and ventriculus Figure 14gizzard erosion Figure 15watery accumulations in the lumen of intestine, sometimes enlargement of pancreas; increased weight of liver, kidneys, and heart; atrophy of bursa Fabricius, thymus, and spleen.
Name Summary Supportive care Isolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location your own chicken “intensive care unit” with easy access to water and food. Samples of feed and ingredients should be collected and promptly submitted for laboratory analysis. The other consistent lesions in aflatoxicosis were found in bursa Fabricius, thymus, and spleen which appeared smaller than normal Figure 3 ; in male parent stocks, the size of testes was significantly reduced Figure 4.
Another common problem with mycotoxins is the contamination of commodities with masked mycotoxins which cannot be detected by routine laboratory analysis Vendl et al. The effects of mycotoxins in poultry are very complex and varies greatly according to their mechanism of toxicity and primary target organs.
These findings are generally supportive of the examples presented for aflatoxin in chickens and argue for the response being of a more general nature.
Diaz and Sugahara, Clinical Signs Loss in appetite. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin, trichothecenes, and fumonisins are known to induce immune suppressive effects in chickens, rendering them more susceptible to diseases Singh et al. Nevertheless, it must not be forgotten that effects of mycotoxins afaltoxicosis very complex and it is possible that symptoms and pathological lesions differ to the ones presented here may also occur Naehrer, Email alerts New issue alert.
Aflatoxicosis in Chickens
Sometimes this organ was very small, rounded, and rubbery which very often complicates with ascites and hydropericardium. Graphs constructed with data from Huff and Huff et al. Poulyry layers and parent stocks, there were decreases in egg production, lower egg weight, poor egg shell more brittlean increased percentage of eggs with small and disintegrated yolks.
Other lesions commonly found were hemorrhages on the intestinal mucosa, pale or yellow discoloration of the bone marrow, dermal necrosis, vesicular lesions on the feet and legs, and enlargement of costo-chondral joints related to rachitic rosary.