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Institucionalizaçâo e internacionalizaçâo das ciências sociais na América Latina Impensar las Ciencias Sociales. Límites de los paradigmas decimonónicos. Part 1: What Makes Us Move? Jai Sen. Immanuel Wallerstein, —Impensar las ciencias sociales. Límites de los paradigmas decimonónicos [‘Unthinking. Instituto de Estudios Avanzados de la Universidad Santiago de Chile. Santiago de Chile, pp 9–21 OLADE, Quito, pp Wallerstein I () Impensar las Ciencias Sociales. Límites de los paradigmas decimonónicos. Editorial Siglo XXI .

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Bogumil Terminski — political scientist, international relations specialist. He studied archaeology, political science and international relations at University of Warsaw. His research work encompasses protection of human rights, international organizations, as well as some aspects of social-political history of the 19th-century Europe. He participated in numerous conferences on human rights organized by the United Nations.

At present, he is preparing for his PhD dissertation on the international protection of human rights. Abstract The subject of this work is the question of the philosophical evolution and legal concept of perpetual peace throughout history.

Its aim is also to show the importance of the issue to our broad understanding of the Less. Its aim is also to show the importance of the issue to our broad understanding of the causative agents of development concepts for the rights of individuals, communities and human rights position in the surrounding world.

The views enunciated by philosophers, thinkers and authors of the law of nations constitute the base on which not only Euro-American culture is resisting but also our contemporary understanding of society, individual liberty and fundamental human rights. That is why so important to undertaken within the discourse on human rights is to show the historical, philosophical and legal genesis of such issues as the evolution of the theory of peaceful coexistence, collective security or religious tolerance and minority rights.

Presented in this work an analysis is not exhaustive. Introduction The phenomena of peace and war constitute the eternal and immanent elements of the history of mankind.

It is assumed that they originate in the deeply rooted in the human nature lust for power, prestige and respect.

Calaméo – Bogumil Terminski, The history of the concept of the genuine and just peace

That drive is characteristic of individuals, as well as entire nations, and often becomes apparent on the level of foreign policies of states. Waging wars or striving for peace are two basic instruments for countries thanks to which they pursue their vital interests. The rules of conduct adopted by states result from subjective and objective factors. Apart from the obvious ones, such. Liberal theories, as opposed to realistic concepts, highlight the necessity of cooperation among states and peaceful co-existence of nations.

While analysing contemporary trends in thought on peace and war among nations, one should bear in mind that they are reminiscences of previous views on that matter, which are deeply rooted in the history of European philosophy. Philosophers from different eras who observed the impenear, nature, and consequences of wars tended to show the possibilities of making and preserving peace.

The idea to build peace among states has developed since the ancient times. It is an eminent elementofthepolitical-legalthought, both due to its long-standing and extensive history, as well as because of its important repercussions for the contemporary social and political life in internal, as well as international dimension. When pondering over the phenomenon of peace, ancient thinkers based upon the historical experience of social groups they were part of. First contemplations on peaceful coexistence of nations emerged, almost simultaneously, in the Hellenic and Chinese civilisations.

Within impenaar Hellenic civilisation, the discussion upon the peace among nations was started by Thucidides – BC. It seems that these two traditions had the most eminent impact in the creation and evolution of the concept of peace, which developed parallel with each other in European andAsian cultural circles. The subject matter of this thesis has been taken up over the centuries by the greatest philosophers, from Plato orAristotle onwards.

A Philosophical Sketch paradigmxs at the end of the 18th century. However, socialees such as Wilson and others did not anticipate that borders of countries delineated over a cup of tea will prove unstable and short-lived, similar to international institutions which were set up to secure them.


In this thesis, I would like to present the evolution of the concept of perpetual peace as based on the views of selected representatives of philosophical and political-legal thought. In order to do that, I shall study different views on that matter voiced by authors starting from ancient times up to the end of the 18th century.

I believe they are worth presenting, due to some interesting institutional solutions they introduced. Antiquity and the Middle Ages with regard to the concept of peace among the countries. Ancient thinkers, who observed wars of their time, paid much attention to the necessity of securing peaceful relations among the countries.

InAntiquity, there were no coherent concepts of securing perpetual and universal peace. However, the idea that any warfare should be eliminated was not entirely alien to many authors of that time. These features, however, were strange to impenxar citizens ofAthens who violated parafigmas agreement with the Melians and committed genocide of most of the inhabitants of the island in order to maintain strategic lmitrs between Athens and Sparta.

Aristotle, in his Nicomachean Ethics, points that peace results from good and wise rule and just law. He claimed that trade and peaceful cooperation are a better form of relations among communities than waging wars against omites another.

This observation seems very acute with regard to the Hellenic world in the Classical era. In spite of the startling cultural, artistic or ideological development, the Greek reality abounded with innumerable instances of fratricidal and ruthless wars. Another ancient civilization, apart from the Greek one, which developed the contemplation on pagadigmas peaceful co-existence of political communities, was the Chinese civilisation in the ancient period. Sun Tzu, in his work Art of War paradoxically, presents his very interesting opinion on peace.

A similar stance was presented by Chinese philosopher decimonnjcos social thinker Mo Ti, know as Micius. His more developed concept interprets peace as a state of ascetic order based on love and mutual kindness among individuals, but also among large communities. To a large extent, these views were reminiscent of earlier views voiced by Confucius, who described the rules of conduct of individuals in pursuit of universal harmony.

Worth mentioning are especially the highlighted necessity of harmony and bonding with other communities, as well as just rule which would protect them against wars. Another element emphasized in both traditions relates to the importance of respecting concluded agreements and commitments.

The period of European Middle Ages, which abounded with religious wars and territorial dismemberment, resulted in a more in-depth philosophical and politicallegal study on the issue of peace among the countries.

First complete in the functional meaning of that notion concepts of perpetual peace emerged at the close of the period.

Bogumil Terminski, The history of the concept of the genuine and just peace

He also called for establishing a impeensar of Christian countries and a special conciliation tribunal, which would be cidncias institutionalized centre securing peace in Europe.

The Pope would serve as body of appeal. Dubois believed that establishing such confederation of countries would help to maintain peace in Europe and liberate the Holy Land. It was an idea to establish a special international paradiigmas which would ensure safety in Europe.

The concept was based on founding an anti-Turkish association of European monarchs which was to encompass Bohemia, France, Poland, Burgundy, and Venice. There was a possibility to expand the association by other countries later on. Paulus Vladimiri felt very strongly against wars and highlighted the fact that converting pagans by force violates fundamental praadigmas of faith.

His teachings reverberated through entire Europe of that time, and nowadays, Paulus Vladimiri is regarded as one of the forerunners of the principle of religious tolerance and peaceful co-existence among nations. Renaissance concepts of peaceful relations among states.

The decline of the traditional role of the Pope also added to the change of attitude towards peace and war in the Renaissance.

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam called for quitting all kinds of wars, except for defensive ones and compulsory arbitration among states. Formed inthe conception was frequently attributed to Henry IV of France.

Its main assumption was to achieve universal peace by establishing European Council — a body which would serve as a plenary authority consisting of 70 delegates, i. Due to his premature death, Henry IV did not managetoputhisambitiousplaninto effect, however, many of its points are still valid. These are, among others, those relating to the balance of power in Europe or founding a permanent arbitration body, which would settle any kind of dispute. He proposed establishing a commonwealth of nations which would include, as well as those of Europe, the nations of Asia and Africa, namely India, Persia, China, the Ottoman Empire, and Ethiopia.


He called for a permanent assembly of the representatives of monarchs and a mediatory body to arbitrate disputes. AdynamicconceptofpeacebyHugo Grotius was a theoretic concept which profoundly formed the foundations of contemporary law.

Grotius believed that war could only be waged in order to restore peace. Deliberations about peace were an eminent part of Leviathan, a work of Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes believed peace could only be achieved by concluding social contract by individuals with a sovereign. According to Hobbes, people are prone to disagreements, and this feature is a deeply rooted part of human nature.

However, he makes a point that affection originates in people the need of peace, whereas their sense helps them execute it. A sine qua non formaintainingpeaceis,accordingto Hobbes, respecting the agreements.

The conception of Hobbes aroused many polemics expressed by other political thinkers of that time, and frequently was a source of formulation of conceptions expressly oppositionist to it.

An overview of 17th -century conceptions of perpetual peace would not be complete without the presentation of the idea of William Penn — the leader of Quakers. These institutions, apart from arms control, would also be responsible for punishment of European states resistant to cooperation. Reflection upon peace among countries in 18th century. Maintaining lasting peace among countries was a subject of studies of great thinkers of the Enlightenment, such as: There were also many programmes for perpetual peace which were based on a very close cooperation of countries by means of institutions they proposed to establish.

A programme for perpetual peace delivered by abbot Charles Francois Castel de Saint-Pierre, announced inwas a very interesting one.

The programme included a statute of European union, which would be a confederation of monarchs. A membership of the institution would be obligatory. He believed that peace is. The author of The Social Contract related imoensar attainment of perpetual peace with armed overthrow of despotic authority imposed on people. However, he believed that perpetual peace is illusory and impossible to achieve, because rulers usually make use of wars to promote their own interests.

Rousseau included some original ideas for attainment of lasting peace in his treatises A Project for Perpetual Peaceand Judgement sur la paix Perpetuelle. The author of The Social Contract appearsasasupporterofestablishing a federation of decimonnnicos in Europe, and assumes the appointment of European plenary body, as well as a permanent international tribunal to arbitrate any disputes among states.

Although fairly sceptical towards the idea that perpetual peace is possible to last, Rousseau believed that his conceptions on that matter could be put into effect. Despite his aversion to wars, Rousseau undoubtedly did not believe they could be utterly eliminated. The contemporary science of international relations regards Rousseau as one of the precursors of a doctrine on lawfulness and acceptability of humanitarian intervention together with Hugo Grotius.

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Theprogrammeforperpetual peacebyImmanuelKantisapeculiar study, both because of its structure and its contents. One could say that, in a way, the work breaks with the convention of programmes of this kind created in the Enlightenment. According to him, these are: The philosophical loos Perpetual Peace: Thestructure of the text in a form of a treaty poses a very interesting subject for analysis.

Moreover,atext describing the role of philosophers in the process of attaining perpetual peace constitutes an integral part of the treaty. Kant writes that no state neither large nor small shall be conquered by other. This concept made Kant a precursor of the principle of sovereign equality deimonnicos nations organized into states, widely accepted as late as years later by the United Nations Charter.